The Mind-Body Problem arises from an intuition that, somehow the mind is different than matter. If that is the case, then at least two questions arise. First, if mind and matter are distinct, then what is nature? Second, if mind and matter are distinct, then in what way do they exert influence over each other? How does the mind affect the body?Descartes is, perhaps the philosopher that most people reference when discussing the mind-body problem. For Descartes, there are two substances: Mind and Matter.
The third page in the above list, marked with a (*), is the most important.
(B) At fropper:
My google document The chaotic behaviour of electric current through tin … describes a nondeterministic inorganic process; the behaviour of a nerve cell is analogous. An interesting general reference on the mind-body problem is the scholarpedia page on computational neuroscience. My other pages contain many relevant links. One that came to my attention later is the paper "Quantum Physics in Neuroscience" which appeared in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (B) in 2005.